I assume you’re talking about wM Broker.
Request/reply is psuedo-synchronous. This does not bypass the queues.
You have some flexibility when you use the API. The API has methods to do publishRequestAndWait() and it has a timeout. Or you can publish a request and get the reply later.
Adapters are usually a bit more restrictive, expecting replies within a user-configurable timeout.
AFAIK, there is a single publish queue on the broker that receives published docs from all clients. There is a delivery queue for each client. Clients can share a single queue via proper configuration (the default is one queue per client). The Broker is a JMS provider but the underpinnings are undoubtedly proprietary.
“Does the queue get attached for a particular client only through client queue storage type?”
I’m not sure what you mean. Every client that connects to a broker has a queue. The queues can have different storage characteristics (memory only, guaranteed) which is controlled by the client group the client says it belongs to.